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Ex protection housings

An online measurement system with Ex protection housing can easily handle hazardous environments.

A selection of LAR's EX p analysers

A selection of LAR's EX p analysers

In various industries, quality requirements for water are becoming stronger making online analysis necessary. Contaminated water, especially water with organic substances, can cause damage to pipes and/or boilers. Hence, determining sum parameters such as TOC, COD, TNb, TP, toxicity and others are commonly used to monitor waste water, process water or steam condensate, return condensate, boiler feed water and cooling water. Online TOC analysers are installed in refineries and chemical facilities. Normally, they are built into an analyser shelter with climate control (HVAC). Mostly, the TOC analyser is located directly at the process facilities. Here, incidentally, explosive gasses, vapours or mist can be present. It is a risky situation, any spark could cause an explosion.

LAR Process Analysers AG offers a wide range of analysers that use tailor made Ex p solutions e.g. IP 65 (Nema 4x) and the ATEX Zone 1 and 2 (T3, T4). These stand-alone analysers do not necessarily require air-conditioned shelters. The Ex p housings are made specifically for the use within hazardous, potentially explosive environments in accordance to international standards such as IEC 60079-14:2007. The zone classification depends on the type of flammable substances e.g. gas, vapour, mist or a cloud of combustible dust and the probability that they can present.

Ex zone 0: Gas, vapour or mist are present continously or for long periods or frequently,

Ex Zone 1: Gas, vapour or mist is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.

Ex Zone 2: Gas, vapour or mist is not likely to occur in normal operation, but – if it does occur – will persist for a short period only.

LAR offers plant operators a secure way to use Online-Analysers even in hazardous environments in order to provide operators with the optimal solutions for their processes.

The total organic carbon (TOC) is one of the most important sum parameters in the assessment of the organic pollution of water. Since it includes all carbon compounds as one mass, it is exactly defined and an absolute quantity. Therefore, it may be determined directly.

Read more about TOC measurement methods.

Total organic carbon analyzers of LAR Process Analysers AG

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicates the amount of oxygen which is needed for the oxidation of all organic substances in water and is thus an important indicator for water analysis. It is considered in the planning and controlling of treatment, as well as assessing its efficiency, thus forming the basis for the calculation of waste water charges.

The COD can be determined in laboratory or online, whereby these methods significantly differ in duration and consumables used.

Read more about COD measurement methods.

COD analyzers of LAR Process Analysers AG

The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) indicates the amount of oxygen which is needed for the biological degradation of organic substances in water.

Since the generally used BOD5 excludes the nitrification part of the process, this parameter is poorly suited for the control of waste water treatment plants. Alternatively, the total BOD is well-suited, due to the determination of the nitrogen as well as the carbonaceous part of biological degradation.

Read more about the online measurement of BOD.

Toxicity is described as the direct harmful effect of a substance on organisms. These effects can already occur at low concentraions of toxic substances and are dependent on the incubation period and the dosage.

Some test methods that are available on the market can detect toxicity by using fish, daphnia, molluscs, algae or luminous bacteria and testing whether a water sample has a toxic effect on the organisms. They do not, however, identify exactly which toxins are present.

Read more about online toxicity measurements.

BOD / toxicity analyzers of LAR Process Analysers AG

The total nitrogen bound (TNb) shows the pollution of water caused by nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen may be present as ammonia, ammonium salts, nitrites, nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds.

In contrast to single measurements of the above-mentioned components, the TNb determination contains all these substances in a single analysis process.

Read more about online TNb measurements.

The total phosphorus (TP) is a sum parameter that shows the organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds in water. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for humans as well as flora and fauna. However, the substance – depending on its concentration– may cause serious damage.

Read more about online TP measurements.

TN TP analyzer of LAR Process Analysers AG