Toxicity in water
Toxicity is described as the direct harmful effect of a substance on organsims. It can refer to the effect on a whole organism or on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell.
The toxic effect depends on the concentration of toxic substances, on the sensitivity of the organisms as well as on the incubation period. Toxicity can already occur at low concentrations. In water toxicity is often calculated as EC50. The Effective Concentration indicates the concentration at which 50% of the test organisms are harmed.
LAR Nitrification Respiration Inhibition Test
The bacteria (nitrifiers) used live on oxygen from the conversion of ammonia to nitrate. The LAR AG's NitriTox and ToxAlarm measure this oxygen consumption. Toxic substances in the sample contents can inhibit the respiration of the bacteria leading to a lowering of the oxygen consumption. Thereby the nitrifiers' oxygen consumption enables to draw conclusions about the toxicity of a sample. The LAR Process Analysers AG test takes 5-15 minutes and is characterized by its self-regenerating, integrated bacteria culture. Hence, no purchase or external breeding is necessary.
The difference to common methods
The LAR Process Analysers AG's measurement method uses a bacteria culture which constantly and independently produces biomass in a fermenter. This fermenter is separated from the measuring cell. For each measurement a fresh amout of bacteria is used. This guarantees that there is always enough bacteria for new measurements and the risk of the fermenter being contaminated is removed. For this reason, there is no purchase or external breeding of organisms necessary.
This table shows a comparison of the most common toxicity detection methods assessed on four criteria.
|Supply||Purchase / breed||Purchase / breed||Purchase / breed||Purchase / breed||Self-regenerating|
|Duration||72 h||50 min||24 or 48 h||48 h||5 min|
|Sensitivity||very high||middling||very high||high||very high|
|Continuous monitoring after accident||yes||yes||no||no||yes|
Common Toxicity Measurement Methods
Often the unicellular green algae is used to indicate toxicity. This method measures the inhibition of cell division caused by toxic substances. At high toxic concentrations, algaes can die. Hence, new algaes have to be stored and kept in stock to ensure further toxicity measurements after a toxic effect.
The algae test takes 72 hours and the supply of the test organisms must be secured by purchase or breed.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. Specific detectors measure the emitted light and draw conclusions on toxicity. Toxic substances cause a reduction of the emitted light.
Commonly, this standard method uses Vibrio fischeri as test organisms. These bacteria glow under optimal growth conditions (bioluminescence). The bioluminescence is reduced by toxic substances in the sample and may lead to death of the organisms.
The bioluminescence test takes 50 minutes. The used test organisms must be purchased or bred.
Daphnia are crustaceans between 0.2 to 5 mm in lenght. Commonly, these small animals called water fleas and are often used for the determination of toxicity. However, for toxicity measurements, they must not be older than 24 hours.
The used Daphnia Magna are very sensitive to heavy metals but less to other substances. Toxic substances cause the death of the organisms, following which the number of surviving organisms are counted.
The daphnia test takes 24 or 48 hours and the organisms must be bred.
The fish test - also known as golden orfe test - describes an animal experiment, which aims to determine at what dilution of waste water all animals survive 48 hours. The result is the smallest integer value of the dilution of the waste water (GF value).
As with the common test methods, the toxic substances cause the death of the organisms. At the end of the test the number of surviving fishes are counted. In Germany the fish test has been replaced since 2005 by the fish egg test.
The fish test takes 48 hours. The used test organisms must be purchased or bred.
Our Toxicity and BOD analyzers
BOD Analyzer BioMonitor
LAR's BioMonitor is an online BOD analyzer for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), respiration and toxicity in waste water. Using BioMonitor, operators can control their waste water treatment plant in an optimal way.
LAR's toxicity analyzer NitriTox continually monitors water for toxic pollutants. Potential toxins in water are determined through the reaction of highly sensitive bacteria. The measurements follow at intervals of less than 5 minutes. Thus, operators can easily introduce countermeasures to protect their treatment plant and processes.
LAR's toxicity analyzer ToxAlarm continually monitors drinking and surface water for pollutants. Potential toxins in water are determined through the reaction of highly sensitive bacteria. The measurements follow at intervals of less than 5 minutes even after events of toxicity.
The total organic carbon (TOC) is one of the most important sum parameters in the assessment of the organic pollution of water. Since it includes all carbon compounds as one mass, it is exactly defined and an absolute quantity. Therefore, it may be determined directly.
Read more about TOC measurement methods.
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicates the amount of oxygen which is needed for the oxidation of all organic substances in water and is thus an important indicator for water analysis. It is considered in the planning and controlling of treatment, as well as assessing its efficiency, thus forming the basis for the calculation of waste water charges.
The COD can be determined in laboratory or online, whereby these methods significantly differ in duration and consumables used.
Read more about COD measurement methods.
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) indicates the amount of oxygen which is needed for the biological degradation of organic substances in water.
Since the generally used BOD5 excludes the nitrification part of the process, this parameter is poorly suited for the control of waste water treatment plants. Alternatively, the total BOD is well-suited, due to the determination of the nitrogen as well as the carbonaceous part of biological degradation.
Read more about the online measurement of BOD.
Toxicity is described as the direct harmful effect of a substance on organisms. These effects can already occur at low concentraions of toxic substances and are dependent on the incubation period and the dosage.
Some test methods that are available on the market can detect toxicity by using fish, daphnia, molluscs, algae or luminous bacteria and testing whether a water sample has a toxic effect on the organisms. They do not, however, identify exactly which toxins are present.
Read more about online toxicity measurements.
The total nitrogen bound (TNb) shows the pollution of water caused by nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen may be present as ammonia, ammonium salts, nitrites, nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds.
In contrast to single measurements of the above-mentioned components, the TNb determination contains all these substances in a single analysis process.
Read more about online TNb measurements.
The total phosphorus (TP) is a sum parameter that shows the organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds in water. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for humans as well as flora and fauna. However, the substance – depending on its concentration– may cause serious damage.
Read more about online TP measurements.